(Hint: Because the mass of 51 Pegasi is about the same as the mass of our Sun, you can use Kepler's third law in its original form, p2=a3. Stay Connected. Extrasolar planets are very challenging to direct directly, ranging from 10^4 to 10^10 times fainter than their parent star. 33) Comets with extremely elliptical orbits, like comets Hyakutake and Hale-Bopp, 34) The number of comets in the Oort cloud is probably about. The Doppler Effect Wails and Redshifts . The graph shows how a star's orbital speed varies with time because of the gravitational tug of an orbiting planet. C) the amount and frequency of the star's motion are both higher. A human hair viewed from a distance of 2000 miles. Since the 1990s, astronomers have been monitoring nearby stars looking for evidence of Doppler shifts caused by orbiting planets. About 97% of all confirmed exoplanets have been discovered using indirect techniques like this. This diagram shows the orbital path of the Sun around the center of mass of our solar system as it would appear from a distance of 30 light-years for the period 1960-2025. C) measuring the positions of stars on the sky, 8) By itself, the Doppler technique provides a measure of a planet's, 9) Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly, 10) Current techniques can measure stellar motion to less than, 11) A planet's density can be measured by combining, 12) The composition of a planet can be determined by, 13) The size and shape of a planet's orbit can be determined by, 14) The astrometric technique of planet detection works best for, 15) The transit method of planet detection works best for. 7) What are the appropriate units for the Sun's luminosity? 32) Where did comets that are now in the Kuiper belt originally form? However, the two most promising techniques for finding more Earth-like extrasolar planets are direct imaging and transits (so long as we can improve our technology enough!) The planets detected through direct imaging currently fall into two categories. Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits. Jovian planets always form in the cold, outer regions of their star system; Terrestrial planets always form in the warm, inner regions of their star system; Jovian planets can migrate inward and disrupt the orbits of terrestrial planets. Question 9 0.5 out of 0.5 points If every star had an Earth-like planet in an Earth-like orbit, how many could be detected by a transit? the precise wavelengths of spectral lines in the spectrum of the star. #3) Which types of planets are most easily detected by Doppler measurements? C) Their masses are similar to Jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot. By itself, the Doppler technique provides a measure of a planet’s. It requires large telescopes, and it provides only minimum mass when orbital inclination to Earth is unknown. Using the method of Mathematical Insight Finding Sizes of Extrasolar Planets, calculate the radius of the transiting planet. Since the 1990s, astronomers have been monitoring nearby stars looking for evidence of Doppler shifts caused by orbiting planets. Furthermore, the size of the stellar Doppler wobble is so large that it must be caused by a planet with at least a mass of 0.6 MJ. 3) Which of the following methods has led to the most discoveries of massive planets orbiting, C) detecting the gravitational effect of an orbiting planet by looking for the Doppler shifts in the. Of the 3,526 extra-solar planets that have been confirmed to date, the transit method has accounted for 2,771 discoveries – which is more than all the other methods combined. B) The original alphabetical labeling did not correspond to surface temperature and thus had to. If a planet can be detected by both methods, then we can find its density—an indication of its composition. Which graph reveals the existence of a planet with the greatest mass? Which of the following do we learn about the planet? C) The rate of nuclear fusion in the Sun peaks about every 11 years. are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star. Their masses are similar to Jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot. A) A gap is located at an average orbital distance, and asteroid orbits often have large. 11) Which layer of the Sun do we normally see? 37) Which of the following luminosity classes refers to stars on the main sequence? Notice the four locations marked by the bold numbers 1 through 4. In fact, our formation model does not allow jovian planets to form that close to their stars. A) The strength of gravity on small asteroids is less than the strength of the rock. Much to the astronomy communities amazement, the first planet discovered via this technique was roughly half the size of Jupiter, but on an orbit significantly smaller than Mercury's! Give your answer in grams per cubic centimeter. Is it possible to determine the planet's mass from the star's velocity curve? To determine a planet's average density, we can use. 16) How does the Sun generate energy today? Because of the electromagnetic force, the two. If so, why can't they be detected? Astronomers have discovered more planets around other stars than in our Solar System. How much brighter is a Sun-like star than the reflected light from a planet orbiting around it? More than a thousand extrasolar planets are now known, but most have been detected indirectly through Doppler shifts or photometric detection of eclipses. 35) A star of spectral type G lives approximately how long on the main sequence? The space-based observatory Gaia, launched in 2013, is expected to find thousands of planets via astrometry, but prior to the launch of Gaia, no planet detected by astrometry had been confirmed. This technique is called the radial velocity or "wobble" method. 23) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that are cool and dim? 32) What is a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem? B) Jupiter-mass, in Jupiter-like orbits. In that case, the revised nebular theory looks just like the old theory, except that it now allows for the possibility of migration. The GAIA mission obtains astrometric data of stars with accuracy in some cases better than 10 microarcseconds. A planet's size can be determined by observing its transit across a star. B) Fusion reactions decrease the overall number of particles in the core, causing the core to, 26) Suppose that, for some unknown reason, the core of the Sun suddenly became hotter. Choose the correct statement describing the Doppler method. Overview; It detects planets in all orbit orientations except face-on. 19) Which planet search technique is currently best suited to finding Earth-like planets? 5) Why do asteroids and comets differ in composition? The Doppler technique has the main advantage of being able to detect planets in a wide range of orbits—as long as the orbit is not face-on. The, 11) The most distant stars we can measure stellar parallax for are approximately. 24) The depth of the dip in a star's brightness due to the transit of a planet depends most directly. Current techniques can measure stellar motion to less than. Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for understanding our own Solar System? D) near the radius at which they orbit today. Which location represents a planet with the greatest mass? Which location represents a planet that has about the same composition as Earth but is larger in both size and mass. 24) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would we find stars that are cool and luminous? C) chunks of a larger asteroid that was shattered by a collision. planets detected via the doppler technique have been mostly jupiter-mass in very close orbits why are many of the newly detected extrasolar planets called hot jupiters their masses are similar to jupiter but they are very close to the central star and therefore hot B) the planet's mass and orbital distance. 17) Why aren't small asteroids spherical in shape? C) Their luminosity can be inferred from their period. Currently, velocities of giant planets have been measured in the region of 1-100m/s. Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly. B) Pluto is regarded by many to be a planet. Why did this hypothesis gain favor over alternative ideas? 18) Which planet can we see occasionally transit across the face of the Sun? In November of 2013, after the failure of two of its reaction wheels, the telescope began its K2 mission, during which time an additional 515 planets have been detected and 178 have been … 19) What do we call a small piece of solar system debris found on Earth? 10) Where are the Trojan asteroids located? B) are more massive than Earth and orbit very close to the star. 26) The composition of a planet's atmosphere be measured during a transit by analyzing. Once a planet forms in a disk-like nebula around a star, its orbit is fixed and will never change. A) the excess absorption of starlight at specific wavelengths. 2) Approximately how many other planetary systems have been discovered to date? Which of the following is a consequence of the discovery of hot Jupiters for the nebular theory of solar system formation? 41) Which of the following statements about a globular cluster is true? A) surface temperature on the horizontal axis and luminosity on the vertical axis. The gas in the solar nebula would create a drag on the planets and their orbits would migrate inwards. Assume that the migration hypothesis is the correct explanation for the hot Jupiters. C) Jupiter-mass, in very close orbits. A planet is detected via the Doppler technique. 25) Why must the Sun's rate of fusion gradually rise over billions of years? 39) What processes are involved in the sunspot cycle? It applies to both sound and light (although they are somewhat different mathematically). 24) Processed meteorites with low metal content probably are. In several cases, multiple planets have been observed around a … A) minimum mass. 29) Which statement best describes the solar neutrino problem? 22) Which of the following best describes the axes of a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram? Choose the correct statement representing how does the transit method work. What would happen to the planets in a solar system where the central star did not have a strong wind? 22) Primitive meteorites can be distinguished from other meteorites and terrestrial rocks because. 9) Planets detected via the Doppler technique have been mostly A) Earth-mass, in Earth-like orbits. 3) A rocky leftover planetesimal orbiting the Sun is, 4) An icy leftover planetesimal orbiting the Sun is. Why are many of the newly detected extrasolar planets called "hot Jupiters"? 27) How do we know what goes on under the surface of the Sun? Based on the model types shown in Figure 13.16 in the textbook, a planet made almost entirely of hydrogen compounds would be considered a, Use Kepler's third law to find the planet's average distance (semimajor axis) from its star. The astrometric technique of planet detection works best for, The size and shape of a planet's orbit can be determined by, A planet's density can be measured by combining. Discovering planets through the __________ requires obtaining and studying many spectra of the same star. C) It shows that we do not fully understand the formation of our Solar System. E) The mass of a neutrino is 30 percent of the mass of an electron. 38) Which of the following statements about the sunspot cycle is not true? SIM PlanetQuest was a US project (cancelled in 2010) that would have had similar exoplanet finding capabilities to Gaia. Multiple-planet systems have been identified around other stars via the Doppler technique. 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